The equation seems inseparable: the ten largest coal powers are trapped in this highly polluting fossil fuel, all of which now promises to reach carbon neutral within a century. As a result, at the center of COP26 in Glasgow, there is a dizzying discrepancy between the clarity of the target displayed by countries – although the deadline varies – and the continued ambiguity of the paths toward this forced retreat. Because if physics is an accurate science, the strategies used by states to respond to environmental emergencies do not follow the same rules. The latter must integrate their economic, financial and social problems, sometimes directly contradicting climate protection.
As evidence of Beijing’s decision to increase coal mining in the midst of COP26, Despite President Xi Jinping’s recent commitment to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. The country has not found the best solution to the energy crisis as it has been badly affected by the shortage of raw materials, which threatens its economy in the short term. Future planetary disruption. That’s a terrible signal when China alone accounts for more than half of the world’s coal consumption.
As for India, which has hitherto been in an embarrassing silence, its leaders have not aligned their commitment to carbon neutral COP26 by 2070 with any concrete strategy to move away from this fuel, while providing almost 70% of its electricity. In short, the principle of reality compels the end of the regime Raja Coal, 44% of the world’s primary energy consumption for combustion-related 44% greenhouse gas emissions is expected to be 30% tomorrow, not tomorrow.
There is no specific action plan
In this area, international conventions, such as COP26, are building hopes. However, the G20 meeting in Rome last weekend set the tone: the leaders of rich countries did not approve of any specific action plan, except for the end of export credits, coal-fired power plants. Appreciated by Emmanuel Macron, This is ” Improved In fact this is not the case because the decision has already been made – primarily by China. For good reason, it knows. “ Future nonprofit Fran இந்தois Gemenne, an expert in environmental geopolitics, believes in these investments abroad. At the same time, however, its national coal consumption continues to rise in 2020 after a small decline associated with the epidemic.
But the U.S.n Commitment should see the light of day on COP26: Alliance of 190 countriesEngagement this Thursday To stop coal from 2030, eT first ” No. Support for the construction of new power plants “, China without subscribers. TheFrance was not part of it either, but welcomed a deal the previous day. Ambitious “Black rock is connected to the course, though it does not have its own energy composition. Paris really came to an end from the first days of the COP “ International Coalition for a Reasonable Energy Change Johannesburg, along with Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union, has pledged up to $ 8.5 billion for South Africa to get out of this fuel. Because, to use renewable energy, one more minority in this region needs a lot of fundraising and knowledge … it doesn’t yet.
Question about the subject
This can be seen prominently in this kind of initiative: without the firm support of the most developed states today their soils are benefiting from improved mechanisms to tackle the climate problem, and coal emissions from developing countries could be demonstrated. Very complicated, otherwise impossible.
“Imagine having a treasure at the bottom of your garden that will allow you to get out of poverty quickly, but others who have already benefited will prevent you from digging in. Very clearly, the success of goals is controlled by the help of the rich,” explains Franுவாois Gemenne.
In other words, if we ask South Indian countries not to exploit the promising fossil resources that make up their subsoil, the researcher argues that they need to be provided with alternative ways to grow. Otherwise, there is a danger that global efforts will be ruined by the continued separation of a few states that do not see other avenues for development. What better way to explain this than when the finance minister of Indonesia, one of the world’s largest coal-producing states, intervened in COP26 on Wednesday. “ We are very committed to climate action. But funding is an important issue and will determine our ability to fulfill our obligations. », She started with his audience.
$ 100 billion to southern countries
about this, From 2020, 100 billion euros will be paid annually from the north to the south, Decided at COP15 in Copenhagen in 2009, which made it possible to obtain a virtuous mechanism. But the balance sheet does not account for the time. According to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), In 2019, all aid provided by rich countries to underdeveloped countries reached only $ 79.6 billion. Despite the lack of data yet, the missing 20 billion are unlikely to have been found in 2020.
“During this COP, the countries of the South will try to negotiate future funding, while they have not yet achieved what they promised.
After all, the outlines of the project have been in the drawer for over ten years. “ Specifically, we do not yet know how these funds will be distributed. », Adds expert. In fact, the envelope should not only be used to fund the energy conversion of these states. But their adaptation to changes that are already irreversible, in which they will be the first victim.
Facilitates technology transfer
Facing the emergency, other efforts are emerging. Among the “Glasgow advances” was a plan to access new technologies introduced by the United Kingdom in COP26, and went unnoticed next to the primary agreements. On deforestation Where On methane. However, the plan already includes more than 40 leaders, including the United States, India, China or the European Union, but especially some developing economies and some countries most vulnerable to climate change. Objective: To provide technology ” Own “And especially” Affordable ⁇ All over the world By 2030.
And it will move from key obligations to the real achievement of carbon neutrality, especially by helping these less “advanced” countries access to innovation and the tools they need. Especially “ Zero emission road vehicles “,” Hydrogen vert “Or” Production of low carbon steel “, Many innovations that are difficult to access. ” For example, making it easier to access these technologies by raising subsidies or patents is often created by northern nations. , Explains François Gemenne.
Towards carbon credits?
Finally, it should be used to restart discussions aimed at exchanging carbon credits between Glasgow countries. Specifically, this device would allow country “A” to borrow emissions from country “B”, for example, to build a wind farm instead of a coal-fired power station. Therefore, country “B” will benefit from clean energy and country “A” can use this credit associated with avoided emissions to offset its own pollution. Purpose: To prevent financing in low carbon states and to reduce the cost of reducing emissions for investors.
But since the decision to set up the Paris Agreement and the development of the rules that make it up have been postponed, this mechanism has been abandoned. For good reason, without effective protections, signatories would be led to follow unsolicited rules, leading countries and corporations to avoid reducing their own emissions, by being satisfied with compensating them. After all, this would create the risk of double counting of countries “A” and “B”. As promised by COP26 Chairman Alok Sharma, it remains to be seen whether the ban will finally be resolved, which will enable the launch of international cooperation that will benefit all.