The seemingly intractable black hole paradox proposed by physicist Stephen Hawking can finally be solved by wormholes through Free time .

“A wormhole connects the inside of a black hole and radiation to the outside, like a bridge,” Kanato Goto, a theoretical physicist in the RIKEN Interdisciplinary Mathematical and Theoretical Sciences Program in Japan, said. He said in a statement .

According to Goto’s theory, a second surface appears within the black hole’s event horizon, the boundary from which nothing can escape. Threads from this wormhole connect the surface to the outside world, entangling information between the inside of the black hole and the radiation leaking from its edges.

In the 1970s, Hawking discovered that black holes are not completely black, but at first he didn’t realize the gigantic problem he created. Before its discovery, physicists assumed that black holes are very simple. Sure, all sorts of complicated stuff fell into it, but black holes have blocked all that information away, and they’ll never be seen again.

But Hawking found that black holes emit radiation, and It can eventually evaporate completely , in a process now known as Hawking radiation, but this radiation itself did not carry any information. In fact, you couldn’t. By definition, the event horizon of a black hole prevents information from leaving. So, when the black hole evaporates and disappears from the universe, where does all its closed information go?

Related: 4 Strange Theories From Stephen Hawking That Turned Out To Be True

This is the black hole information paradox. One possibility is that the information could be destroyed, which seems to violate everything we know about physics. (For example, if information can be lost, you cannot reconstruct the past from current events, or predict future events.) Instead, most physicists attempt to resolve the paradox by finding some way—whatever way—for the information contained within a black hole. seeps through Hawking radiation. In this way, when the black hole disappears, the information remains in the universe.

Either way, describing this process requires new physics.

“This refers to this year Relativity And the Quantum mechanics Goto said, since they are currently incompatible with each other. We have to find a unified framework gravity . “

Entropy tale
In 1992, physicist Don Page, a former graduate student at Hawking, saw the problem of the information paradox another way. started looking at Quantum entanglement , which is when the fate of distant particles is connected. This entanglement acts as a quantum mechanical link between Hawking radiation and the black hole itself. Page measured the amount of entanglement by calculating “entanglement entropy,” a measure of the amount of information contained in entangled Hawking radiation.

In Hawking’s original account, no information evades, and the entanglement entropy always increases until the black hole finally disappears. But Page found that if black holes do release information, the entanglement entropy initially grows; Then, the mid-life of the black hole decreases before it finally reaches zero, when the black hole evaporates (which means that all the information inside the black hole has finally escaped).

If Page’s calculations are correct, this indicates that if black holes allow information to escape, something special must happen midway through their lives. While Page’s work did not solve the information paradox, it did give physicists something exciting to work on. If they can cause a mid-life crisis for black holes, this solution might resolve this paradox.

Through the wormhole

Cygnus X-1 black hole pulls material from a massive blue star. Once these “stuff” hit the event horizon, there’s no escape, right? (Image credit: NASA/CXC)

Recently, several teams of theorists have applied mathematical techniques borrowed from them string theory One approach to unifying Einstein’s relativity with quantum mechanics is to study this problem. They were studying how space-time near the event horizon could be more complex than scientists initially thought. How complicated? complex as possible, allowing for any kind of bending and bending at the microscopic scale.

Their work led to two surprising advantages. One was the appearance of an “extreme quantum surface” just below the event horizon. This inner surface modulates the amount of information leaving the black hole. At first, don’t do much. But when the black hole is in its middle age, it begins to take over the entanglement, reducing the amount of information out) so that the entanglement entropy follows Beige’s predictions.

Second, the calculations revealed the presence of wormholes – a lot of them. These wormholes appear to connect the extreme quantum surface to the outside of the black hole, allowing information to go beyond the event horizon and be released as Hawking radiation.

But this previous work has only been applied to very simplified “game” models (such as one-dimensional versions of black holes). With Goto’s work, the same result has now been applied to more realistic scenarios – a major advance that brings this work closer to explaining reality.

Still, there are a lot of questions. First, it is not yet clear whether the wormholes appearing in a file mathematics They are the same wormholes that we think of as shortcuts in space and time.

It is so deeply buried in mathematics that it is difficult to determine its physical meaning. On the other hand, it could mean that wormholes are literally in and out of a evaporating black hole. Or it could just be a sign that spacetime near a black hole is non-local, which is a hallmark of entanglement — two entangled particles do not need to be in causal communication in order to influence each other.

One other major issue is that while physicists have identified a potential mechanism for eliminating the paradox, they don’t know how it actually works. There is no known process that actually does the work of taking the information inside a black hole and encoding it into Hawking radiation. In other words, physicists have built a potential route to solve the information paradox, but they haven’t found any way to build trucks that go on that route.

“We still don’t know the underlying mechanism of how radiation moves information away,” Guto said. “We need a theory of quantum gravity.”

Originally published on Live Science.

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